How to Do the Adhesion Inspection for Non-Stick Coating on Carbon Steel Bakeware?

Written by : Tiffany Lai
Tiffany Lai

Tiffany Lai

Co-founder and Key Account Manager at Bonray Bakeware

Table of Contents

How to Do the Adhesion Inspection for Non-Stick Coating on Steel Bakeware?

Imagine you’re getting ready to stock your store with a lot of kitchenware, and you’re counting on an order of non-stick bakeware that you know will be of the best quality. Imagine how disappointed you’ll be if people start writing bad reviews about those pans because the coatings come off after only a few uses. This example emphasizes the need for adhesion testing in bakeware nonstick coatings to ensure product durability and customer satisfaction.

Adhesion inspection for nonstick coating on metal bakeware has a few essential phases, including surface preparation, coating application, curing, and assessing the coating’s adherence to the substrate. This testing not only helps to maintain product quality, but it also protects your brand’s reputation by avoiding such disasters. In this article, I’ll provide an extensive introduction to help you maintain high standards across your product lines. Understanding and implementing these tests allows you to improve product durability, reduce warranty claims, and maintain your brand’s reputation for quality.

The Role of Steel Bakeware in Modern Kitchens

Steel bakeware is a real helper in your daily baking. It heats fast, bakes evenly, and can stand high heat. This means your cookies or bread come out perfect, every time. Plus, it’s durable and easy to clean, especially when it has a non-stick coating.

But the non-stick coating needs to stick well to the pan. That’s where adhesion inspection comes in. It’s a check-up to make sure the non-stick layer won’t peel or chip off over time. This way, you can trust your bakeware to work well, without worrying about the non-stick coating getting into your food. The bottom line? Steel bakeware makes baking easier and more efficient, and adhesion inspection ensures you can use it with peace of mind.

Understanding Bakeware Coatings

What are bakeware coatings? Basically, they’re made to have a non-stick surface that makes cooking and cleaning easier, which is important for both home cooks and business kitchens. There are various types of coatings used in bakeware.

This popular nonstick coating made from fluoropolymers, such as polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE), also known as Teflon. It is famous for its smooth, low friction. It is widely used in cookware because of its nonstick properties, which allow food to release readily without sticking and easy to clean. They are long-lasting, scratch-resistant, and can survive extreme temperatures. However, there have been concerns in the cookware and bakeware industry regarding the potential health and environmental effects of PTFE-based nonstick coatings.

  • Silicone-based Coatings

Silicone-based coatings for bakeware are typically made from materials called silicones, which are also known as polysiloxane coatings. The smooth, non-stick properties of silicon-based coatings allow food to release easily, reducing the need for excessive greasing or oiling, which can be beneficial for healthier cooking. Additionally, these coatings are often highly scratch-resistant and heat-resistant, making them popular for a wide range of bakeware. They are also considered a more environmentally-friendly alternative to PTFE.

  • Sol-gel ceramic coatings

Sol-gel ceramic coatings are an innovative and eco-friendly solution for nonstick bakeware. A special method called sol-gel is used to make these coats. This method creates a colloidal suspension (sol) that hardens into a ceramic material that looks like glass. The coating is scratch-resistant, resilient, and can tolerate baking and oven temperatures up to 450°F. Sol-gel ceramic coatings, unlike standard PTFE-based non-stick coatings, are free of any toxic chemicals or ingredients, making them a safer and more environmentally responsible option for bakeware.

The Process of Conducting Non-Stick Coating on Carbon Steel Bakeware

The process of making non-stick bakeware starts with cleaning the carbon steel piece, also called as phosphating treatment. This process include getting rid of any dirt, oil, or tiny particles on the surface that might mess up the coating, which gives a clean, smooth surface ready for the coating.

Then comes the step of putting on the non-stick coating. The non-stick layer is spread evenly over the metal parts. The way this is done can vary, depending on the coating type and the product. Some coatings start as a liquid that’s then cured, while others are a powder that’s heated to make a smooth layer.

The last step is curing process, or hardening, of the non-stick coating. The bakeware product is baked at high temperatures (usually from 230℃ to 400 ℃, denpending by the coating types) to harden the coating and boost its non-stick ability. Curing is key because it lets the coating bond tightly with the metal, making sure it sticks well.

Pre-Adhesion Inspection Preparation

Adhesion testing requires proper bakeware preparation to get precise results. The bakeware surface must be clean and free of oils, dust, and other residues that could interfere with coating. Special preparation methods are needed for various materials like carbon steel, aluminum, and different coating materials like silicone-based and PTFE coatings. Controlling humidity and temperature can avoid condensation and other issues that affect coating adhesion.

Paint Adhesion Testing Methods

For wholesalers and retailers, to better evaluate the products you are buying and selling and ensure your bakeware coatings can withstand retail and commercial use, you must understand and implement adhesion testing methods. These methods are suited for different types of coatings and bakeware materials.

  • Tape Test

The tape test, based on ASTM D3359, is a simple yet effective method that applies tape to a coated surface following a tiny cut. Remove the tape quickly to see if any coating pulls off. This test is quick and easy to apply, making it excellent for quick onsite check such as routine quality control checks or during trade shows or manufacturing visits.

Tape Adhesion ASTM D3359 [Paint Testing]

Cross-cut or cross-hatch test is one way to check if the coating sticks well to the metal. This involves cutting a small grid pattern into the coating with a sharp blade, then using sticky tape to pull off the grid section. The way the coating comes off can help you figure out problems with the adhesion process or the coating formula itself.

This method is detailed in ASTM D3359-Method B and is used for coatings thinner than 5 mils, providing a more sensitive measure of adhesion than the tape test.

Here’s a simple step-by-step of how the cross-cut test usually works:

  1. Get the Test Area Ready: Start by cleaning the part of the non-stick steel bakeware you’ll be testing to make sure no dust or other particles get in the way of the test.
  2. Do the Cross-cut: With a cross-cut tool, make a bunch of parallel cuts through the coating until you reach the base. The cuts should be evenly spaced. Then, rotate the tool 90 degrees and make another set of cuts, forming a grid. The cross-cut area should be about 1×1 cm.
  3. Stick on the Tape: Put a piece of sticky tape (usually a certain type chosen by the test standard) over the cross-cut and press it down hard to make sure it really sticks to the surface.
  4. Pull off the Tape: Wait a bit (usually a few minutes), then quickly rip off the tape. You want to do this in one fast move, pulling the tape back against itself at a 180-degree angle.
  5. Check the Results: Look at the cross-cut area and the tape. If the coating sticks well to the bakeware, only tiny pieces of the coating will come off with the tape. If a lot of the coating comes off, it means the adhesion isn’t great.

The results of the cross-cut test are usually rated according to certain standards, like ASTM D3359 (Standard Test Methods for Rating Adhesion by Tape Test). This standard has a scale from 0 (worst) to 5 (best), based on how much coating comes off.

How to do a cross-cut test on coating surface

While the cross-cut test is useful, it harms the coating finally. So, it’s usually done on sample pieces or parts of the finished product that aren’t easy to see. Also, it’s worth mentioning that the test should be done by someone who’s been trained to do it. This makes sure it’s done safely and correctly.

Pull-off test, which is also known as the dolly test, helps bakeware manufacturer and quality control teams to objectively analyze the adhesion of non-stick coatings on bakeware.

Some kind of pull-off adhesion tool is used for this test. A strong glue is used to stick a round metal dolly or stub to the coated surface. The tester then puts a steady but growing force on the dolly in a perpendicular direction until the coating separates from the substrate. The coating’s adherence is measured by the dolly’s removal force. It’s particularly useful for evaluating the adhesion of thicker, stronger coatings. Bakeware companies tend to set minimum adhesion limits to guarantee their oven pan fulfills strict quality standards before reaching consumers.

Along with pull-off adhesion testing, scrape adhesion testing is vital for analyzing bakeware non-stick coating durability and lifetime. This test reveals how well the coating resists mechanical wear.

A sharp, angled scraper scrapes the covered surface in the scrape test. The blade is pulled across the coating at controlled power, speed, and passes. After each test, the coated surface is checked for scratches, flaking, and delamination.

Baking pans manufacturer can assess non-stick finish scrape resistance and toughness by assessing coating removal or degradation. This information helps them adjust the coating composition and application technique to make baking pans durable despite regular washing, utensil contact, and high temperatures. Quality, long-lasting non-stick bakeware passes rigorous scrape adhesion tests.

To conclude the above information, I’ve made a table that can help you quick identify which one suits your standards most.

Test MethodDescriptionStandard ReferenceApplication Notes
Tape TestA piece of tape is applied to a coated surface that has been slightly cut. The tape is removed quickly to see if any coating comes off with it. This test is straightforward and suitable for quick checks.ASTM D3359Ideal for routine quality control and quick onsite checks, such as during trade shows or manufacturing visits.
Cross-cut TestA grid pattern is cut into the coating using a sharp blade, and tape is used to pull off the section. This method checks how well the coating adheres to the underlying metal and identifies potential adhesion problems.ASTM D3359-Method BUsed for coatings thinner than 5 mils. It is detailed but destructive, best performed on sample pieces or less visible parts of the final product.
Pull-off TestA round metal dolly is glued to the coating, and a force is applied until the coating separates from the substrate. This method quantifies the adhesion strength of the coating and is useful for thicker, stronger coatings.ASTM D4541Valuable for objective analysis of adhesion in thicker coatings. Minimum adhesion limits are often set for quality assurance.
Scrape TestA sharp, angled scraper is used to scrape the coated surface under controlled conditions. This test assesses how well the coating resists mechanical wear such as scratching, flaking, and delamination.ASTM D2197-16Important for evaluating the durability and longevity of non-stick coatings on bakeware. Performed under controlled force, speed, and passes.
Different Adhesion Testing Methods

Best Tips for Ahension Testing

To maximize the benefits of adhesion testing for bakeware coatings, here are several best practices you should consider implementing in your operations:

  • Before Ahension Testing

Personnel training: Testers must be properly trained. They must know how to use the testing equipment and adhesion testing principles. This ensures reliable testing and data collection.

Surface Preparation: Clean and prepare bakeware surfaces before testing. This can include degreasing or minor abrasion to improve test accuracy.

Environmental conditioning: Simulate use conditions for test samples. This phase is essential to understanding how climate affects coating adherence.

  • During Ahension Testing

Standardize Test Procedures: Adhesion testing requires consistency. Standardizing test techniques across product batches ensures comparable and trustworthy findings. Use the same test procedures, circumstances, and equipment settings every time.

Protective Measures: Follow safety guidelines when testing, especially when using dangerous mechanical or chemical methods.

  • After Ahension Testing

Data Analysis: Carefully review testing data to make product quality and improvement decisions.

Feedback Loop: Inform suppliers and manufacturers of coating or application process improvements based on testing results.

Regular Calibration of Equipment: Testing equipment must be calibrated routinely to maintain accuracy, per the manufacturer’s instructions. This prevents differences from leading to incorrect coating quality expectations.

These tips will ensure the quality and reliability of your bakeware and showcase you as a knowledgeable resource for your clients, improving your credibility and product trust.


We’ve discussed adhesion testing’s importance in bakeware coating quality throughout this tutorial. Each testing method can assist prevent coating peeling or degradation.

For wholesalers and distributors, understanding and utilizing these adhension testing methods can help improve product reliability and develop brand reputation on the market. By cooperating with bakeware manufacturer who follows the highest testing standards, you can offer kitchen items that last, improving consumer happiness and loyalty.

Remember, business success sometimes depends on trust and information, which adhesion testing presents. Staying well-informed and open-minded can help you stay competitive.

Not simply selling bakeware or cookware, but ensuring that every piece sold under your watch meets the highest performance standards. I recommend you use these testing methods because they will help your business grow and the make the consumers who use your products happy.

Please contact us with any inquiries or to discuss adhesion testing techniques to improve your products. Thanks for reading, and best of luck in the kitchenware business!


In my years of engaging with customers and partners, I’ve compiled a list of the most frequently asked questions regarding adhesion testing in the bakeware industry. Here are some pertinent questions along with their answers, which reflect our commitment to transparency and customer education.

  • What is adhesion testing?

Adhesion testing measures how well a coating sticks to the surface of bakeware. It’s essential for ensuring the durability and safety of the bakeware and cookware products.

  • What are the most common adhesion tests for bakeware?

The Tape, Cross-cut, and Pull-off Tests are popular. Each test evaluates coating durability under different situations and methods.

  • Are these tests destructive?

Yes, tests like the Cross-cut and Pull-off Tests are destructive as they damage the coating to evaluate its adherence. They are typically performed on sample pieces.

  • How often should adhesion tests be conducted on bakeware coatings?

Each product batch should undergo adhesion testing to assure quality. However, the frequency can vary depending on manufacturing cycles and changes in materials or processes.

  • What are the most common reasons for adhesion failure?

Most typical reasons are inappropriate surface preparation, inadequate coating curing, environmental conditions during application, and substrate-incompatible coating ingredients.

  • Can adhesion testing predict the long-term durability of bakeware coatings?

Adhesion testing can estimate coating durability through accelerated aging and long-term use simulations.

  • What steps can be taken if a batch fails adhesion testing?

Analyze failed batches to find the cause. This may require examining the coating method, materials, or application environment. Reprocessing the batch or changing the production method are possible corrective options.

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